Amazon S3 allows customers to run sophisticated queries against data stored without the need to move data into a separate analytics platform.
The ability to query this data in place on Amazon S3 can significantly increase performance and reduce cost for analytics solutions leveraging S3 as a data lake.
S3 offers multiple query in place options:
Amazon Athena, and
Amazon Redshift Spectrum,
You need to choose the best fits your use case.
S3 Select is an Amazon S3 feature that makes it easy to retrieve specific data from the contents of an object using simple SQL expressions without having to retrieve the entire object. You can use S3 Select to retrieve a subset of data using SQL clauses, like SELECT and WHERE, from objects stored in CSV, JSON, or Apache Parquet format.
You can use S3 Select to retrieve a smaller, targeted data set from an object using simple SQL statements.
You can use S3 Select with AWS Lambda to build serverless applications that use S3 Select to efficiently and easily retrieve data from Amazon S3 instead of retrieving and processing entire object.
You can also use S3 Select with Big Data frameworks, such as Presto, Apache Hive, and Apache Spark to scan and filter the data in Amazon S3.
Amazon Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in Amazon S3 using standard SQL queries.
Athena is serverless, so there is no infrastructure to setup or manage, and you can start analyzing data immediately. You don’t even need to load your data into Athena, it works directly with data stored in any S3 storage class.
While Athena is ideal for quick, ad-hoc querying and integrates with Amazon QuickSight for easy visualization, it can also handle complex analysis, including large joins, window functions, and arrays.
Amazon Redshift Spectrum is a feature of Amazon Redshift that enables you to run queries against exabytes of unstructured data in Amazon S3 with no loading or ETL required.
When you issue a query, it goes to the Amazon Redshift SQL endpoint, which generates and optimizes a query plan. Amazon Redshift determines what data is local and what is in Amazon S3, generates a plan to minimize the amount of Amazon S3 data that needs to be read, requests Redshift Spectrum workers out of a shared resource pool to read and process data from Amazon S3.
Redshift clusters can be used to query S3 data lake, thus providing high availability and limitless concurrency.
Redshift Spectrum offers freedom to store your data where you want, in the format you want, and have it available for processing when you need it.